Sunday, May 24, 2020
In accordance with temperance, battle is the most important aspect of Homeric Heroes. It is on a battlefield that heroes gain glory for fighting, prizes for their accomplishments, and honor for their actions. However, hero he may be, Achilles Ã¢â¬Å"was not to be seen in council, that arena for glory, nor in battleÃ¢â¬ (Book 1, 518-519). He was Ã¢â¬Å"throwing his heroism awayÃ¢â¬ by not taking part in the event that made people heroes. Prior to this, Achilles was a well-recognized hero. Goddesses said Ã¢â¬Å"when godlike Achilles used to enter battle the Trojans wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t so much as leave their gates out of fear of what his spear could doÃ¢â¬ (Book 5, 840-842). He was among the greatest of heroes and he was turning away from what made him that hero. He wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He assured the pain of losing a battle was the worse pain a hero could endure, saying to his wife, Ã¢â¬Å"All that pain is nothing to what I will feel for you, when some bronze-armored Greek leads you away in tears, on your first day of slaveryÃ¢â¬ (Book 6, 477-479). Hector wanted to win because as a hero, glory and honor were best achieved through winning battles. Achilles would have much rather gone home to his family than win the battle. The standard Homeric hero was characterized by glory, honor, and justice, all of which was achieved through winning or fighting in battles. When Agamemnon recognized he was losing the battle, he sent messengers to convince Achilles to join the battle. He offered him numerous prizes and gifts. These gifts were perceived as necessary elements for a hero entering battle. Without them, their level of honor decreased immensely. They said to him, Ã¢â¬Å"Come while there are gifts, while the Achaeans will still honor you as if you were a god. But if you go into battle without any gifts, your honor will be less, save us or notÃ¢â¬ (Book 9, 619-623). Despite their efforts, Achilles denied their gifts, boldly stating, Ã¢â¬Å"My honor comes from ZeusÃ¢â¬ (Book 9, 625). This suggested he did not need gifts to feel honored. He already had honor, and he did not seek more but maintain his already achieved honor. He did not need gifts to be a hero either. The gods had made him a hero (meaning they gave him skills that achieved him honor in the past), and that wasShow MoreRelatedEssay about Heroic Code in the Iliad and the Odyssey979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHeroic Code in the Iliad and the Odyssey In Websters Dictionary, a hero is defined as a person noted for courageous acts or nobility of purpose, especially if this individual has risked or sacrificed his life. In the Iliad and the Odyssey, the code which administers the conduct of the Homeric heroes is a straightforward idea. The aim of every hero is to achieve honor. Throughout the Iliad and the Odyssey, different characters take on the role of a hero. Honor is essential to the HomericRead MoreHeroes Are The People In The Society That We Admire For1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHeroes are the people in the society that we admire for or venerated for the courage they portray, noble qualities, and the outstanding achievements associated with them. In every community, anyone who attains the hero status, he/she creates ideals and ideas that the community creates and strives for. Heroes are individuals who assist in shaping the culture of the community they are associated with in the literature, the community also shapes the h eroes too. The motivation and zeal of the heroesRead MoreThe Code Of Honor In The Iliad And The Odyssey1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary, a hero is defined as a person noted for courageous acts or nobility of purpose, especially if this individual has risked or sacrificed his life. In the Iliad and the Odyssey, the code which administers the conduct of the Homeric heroes is a straightforward idea. The aim of every hero is to achieve honor. Throughout the Iliad and the Odyssey, different characters take on the role of a hero. Honor is essential to the Homeric heroes, so much that life would be meaningless withoutRead MoreThe World Set Up By Homer754 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdraw attention towards the passionate individuality of the warriors, who by the very nature of the heroic complex, are defined by their participation, or rather success, in battle. As Agamemnon visits the front lines, he calls forth a series of great Achaean heroes: Idomeneus, Nestor, Odysseus , Diomedes, Stehnelus, and Ajax, each of whom is portrayed as the brave, proud, loyal archetypical Homeric hero caught up within this test of excellence. En masse, the Achaean army is seen gathering under theRead MoreWhy Do We Consider Odysseus to Be a Hero797 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhy do we consider Odysseus to be a hero? Was he all bullets and bravado like the Ã¢â¬Å"heroesÃ¢â¬ of today? Was he a testosterone and power armor kind of hero we see in video games? No, but he was heroic nonetheless. His loyalty, valor, humanity and most importantly, his intelligence, sets him apart from many other heroes from his era and from ours. He exemplifies the most important ideals of Homeric Greeks and is portrayed not only as a proud adventurer, but also as a caring father and a husband. LoyaltyRead MoreSatan Is Evil Or Evil?1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnegative characteristics, some groups have very different beliefs. Throughout literature, Satan has been represented as the evillest entity to ever have existed, but Satan is not truly as evil as he is portrayed because he is more of an anti-hero or Byronic Hero in texts such as John MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Paradise Lost as well as other academic scholars arguments, rather than being a complete antagonist. According to the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of the Bible, before Adam and Eve, God made the angels. The mostRead MoreThe Iliad Herioc Code1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages202: Classical Epic: Gods and Heroes Paper #1 The heroic code in the Iliad is expressed by many characters throughout the book, whether it be through their actions, intentions, or teachings. The heroic code stems from the belief that honor is, above all, the most important virtue in life and all men must honor themselves, their families, and their fellow comrades through specific character traits and actions. This concept is the primary goal in a Homeric heroÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Specifically, courageRead MoreEpic Passages of The Epic of Gilgamesh and Homers Odyssey921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefinition of a hero has evolved over time through both written word and human experiences, so what is a hero? In the two epic passages The Epic of Gilgamesh and Homers Odyssey, heroism appears to be a clear distinction with the literature, and has the same basic framework as todayÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of a hero. Historically, in the texts, heroes such as Gilgamesh and Odysseus are protagonists viewed and credited with great bravery and mos t certainly heroism. Nearly all of the heroic figures throughoutRead More The Immortal Heroes of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad Essay1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Immortal Heroes of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad In HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Iliad, a warrior can only attain heroism and immortality by embracing an early death. Jean-Pierre Vernant describes this paradox in his essay, Ã¢â¬Å"A Ã¢â¬ËBeautiful DeathÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Disfigured Corpse in Homeric Epic.Ã¢â¬ According to Vernant, heroes accept the fact that life is short and Ã¢â¬Å"devote themselves completely and single-mindedly to war, adventure, glory, and deathÃ¢â¬ (53). 1 Curiously, this is because heroes overcome death only when they embrace itRead MoreThe Iliad: Literary Analysis1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesupon as heroes; some of these heroes included Achilles, Ajax, Diomedes, Hector, and Glaucus. All of these individuals were heroes because of their remarkable mental and physical strength: they were courageous and were better fighters in war than other ordinary men. The trade of battle was a way of life to the Greeks back in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s time. Children were raised to become great servicemen to their country, and warriors lived to fight for and defend their nation with pride and valor. The heroic code was
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Nervous Conditions draws much focus on the lives of women living the impacts of colonialism in a traditional African society in Zimbabwe. These women struggle to assert themselves in a patriarchal society while at the same time it speaks about the history of a country that has been under colonialization. The female characters in the stories struggle in their lives to find ways to deal with their own situation; however, this essay emphasizes African womenÃ¢â¬â¢s situation in both the colonized and/or patriarchal societies as exemplified by the female characters: Tambu and Nyasha. Tambu leaves her country because of its inequality and male biases so she can seek freedom and gain liberation. Nyasha resisters and defies patriarchy, as manifested byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Nervous ConditionsÃ¢â¬ narrates the harsh experiences of women in Africa who happen to be subjected to the patriarchal system and to the colonized regime. In Imperial leather, Anne McClintock indicates that, Ã¢â¬Å"colonized women, before the intrusions of imperial rule, were invariably disadvantaged within their societies, in ways that gave the colonial reordering of their sexual and economic labor very different outcome from those of colonized menÃ¢â¬ (6).WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of colonization by this sense is enormously different from that of men and their experience of colonization upholds influences on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life, relations, status and roles within their own imperial societies. The colonized women must Ã¢â¬Å"negotiate not only the imbalances of their relations with their own men but also the baroque and violent array of hierarchal rules and restrictions that structured their relations with imperial men and womenÃ¢â¬ Clintock p.6). Exploitation is the colonizers logo and women in this novel are being manipulated for the benefit of the patriarchal society in the same manner the colonizer deploys the colonized for his own means. Traditional and cultural practices reinforce the power of men in African societies and are often embraced without any questioning. Tambu, is denied access to education because she is a girl. TambuÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to further her education is influenced by cultural assumptions, which consider education to be a male preserve. TambuÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Nervous Conditions 1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNervous Conditions written by Zimbabwean author Tsitsi Dangarembga is a rather complex novel that communicates a plethora of implicit and explicit messages about complexities surrounding sex, class and gender. It is a story told from the perspective of Tambudzai(Tambu), an impoverished teen whom, as a result of the passing of her brother Nhamo, gets the opportunity to receive an education under the roof of her Uncle Babamukuru. While living with her uncle Babamukuri, the headmaster of the missionRead MoreNervous Conditions Analysis3886 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesÃ Nervous Conditions is a novel by Zimbabwean author Tsitsi Dangarembga, first published in the United Kingdom in 1988. The semi-autobiographical novel focuses on the story of a Rhodesian family in post-colonial Rhodesia during the 1960s. It attempts to illustrate the dynamic themes of race, class, gender, and cultural change during the post-colonial conditions of present-day Zimbabwe. The title is taken from the introduction by Jean-Paul Sartre to Frantz Fanons The Wretched of the Earth. Plot summaryRead MoreNervous Conditions Analysis3875 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesÃ Nervous Conditions is a novel by Zimbabwean author Tsitsi Dangarembga, first published in the United Kingdom in 1988. The semi-autobiographical novel focuses on the story of a Rhodesian family in post-colonial Rhodesia during the 1960s. It attempts to illustrate the dynamic themes of race, class, gender, and cultural change during the post-colonial conditions of present-day Zimbabwe. The title is taken from the introduction by Jean-Paul Sartre to Frantz Fanons The Wretched of the Earth. Plot summaryRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel Nervous Conditions 1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the novel Nervous Conditions, Tsitsi Dangarembga explores the concepts of power and oppression. Speaking up about oppression can liberate a person, so the people in charge do not want the oppressed to speak up. In Nervous Conditions, males have much more dominance in life than females. Maiguru, Nyasha, and Lucia all attempt to stand up for themselves against oppression, with little success. Dangarembga develops the characters Maiguru, Nyasha, and Lucia in order to convey how speaking out againstRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Babamukuru In Nervous Conditions963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the story, Nervous Conditions, Babamukuru is Tambu, the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s, uncle. He is an essential character because his reactions dictate how all the other characterÃ¢â¬â¢s act and behave. He is the father of two of the characters and the husband to another character, but always asserts himself in eve ryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, because of his duty to the immediate and extended family. He is the disciplinarian and parental figure to many of the characters. He is tough and not loveable to his kids, he especiallyRead MoreNervous Systems And The Nervous System1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The nervous system is a system of nerve cells and fibres that transmit electrical impulses throughout the whole body. The nervous system is made up of two systems; the central nervous system or CNS and the peripheral nervous system or PNS. The CNS is made up of the brain and the spinal cord (see Figure 1.0 below), these are protected by bone and cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid, and the PNS is the nervous around the rest of the body. The PNS consists of motor neurons, sensory neurons, somatic nervousRead MoreThe Autonomic Nervous System ( Sns ) Division Of The Nervous Systems1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAutonomics and Stress Introduction: The autonomic nervous system, which is the division of the central nervous system that is not consciously controlled but regulates bodily functions, is influenced by stress. Stress can be defined as a stimulus that interrupts homeostasis within the body, either physiologically or psychologically. The influence that it has is innovation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) division of the ANS, and can include changes to skin conductance, heart rate, blood pressureRead MoreSurgeons: Surgery and Surgical Critical Care850 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdied. In this case, both a coroner and a medical examiner may be licensed to determine cause of death. In cases of violence, where a crime must be established, but has not caused a death, a medical examiner may assist in rape examinations, analysis of blood, analysis of DNA evidence, and thorough examination of the body to document injury. Usually we are used to seeing a medical examiner in a court setting, where he or she can describe cause of death or establish DNA evidence. When information aboutRead MoreImperialism In Frantz Fanons The Wretched Of The Earth1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat allowed the establishment of Western imperial hegemony over the Orient. In his book The Wretched of the Earth, Frantz Fanon specifically articulates on the Ã¢â¬Å"nervous conditionÃ¢â¬ of native intellectuals and their struggle to cope with their hybrid identities in a postcolonial society. Jean-Paul SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"nervous conditionÃ¢â¬ (Fanon 20), similarly, touches upon the concept of hybridity that is articulated by Said, and explains the alienated position of the native who occupies multipleRead MoreThe Importance Of Walking Under Steady State Conditions1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof activity of lower extremities muscles and speed. Several studies in the past have looked into this relationship for walking under steady-state conditions. In this section we review these studies and their findings and we highlight limitations of their approaches and discuss the suggestions to expand the analysis to walking under transient conditions. Hof et al.  were one of the first groups to measure surface electromyograms (EMGs) from subjects walking at different speeds. Five speeds were
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Cyclical Nature of Hatred and Vengeance By Darina Gaievska Love and hatred, happiness and misery, excitement and lethargy Ã¢â¬â all of these emotions are inherited to the human nature. Hatred fits in among one of the strongest human feelings; it is a seed that engenders vengeance. In the ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, The Merchant of Venice, these two inextricably bound terms are portrayed unequivocally. We will write a custom essay sample on Themes in the Merchant of Venice or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are three main reasons why hatred was such a focal ingredient to the play: the Anti-Semitism, the unacceptability of usury and the personal altercations between the focal characters First and foremost, the tensions between the playÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist and antagonist take place primarily due to the cultural notion of Anti-Semitism. In spite of Venice being the multicultural and hence multi-religious trade city, the discrimination of the Jewish people was yet apprehensible. Throughout The Merchant of Venice Antonio keeps referring to Shylock as Ã¢â¬Å"The JewÃ¢â¬ , a term that was so derogatory at the time. Although there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t much use of direct anti-Semitic slurs, the enmity towards the subculture still lurked in the passages of the play. When Shylock slyly alluded to Jacob from Genesis, justifying his practice of usury, Antonio responded dismissively, saying that Ã¢â¬Å"the devil can cite Scripture for his purposeÃ¢â¬ . By calling Shylock Ã¢â¬Å"the devilÃ¢â¬ due to ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s faith. In the merchantÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, Jews were traitors, who deceived the Christ. Although Shylock shows his awareness of the Christian religion, Antonio does not respect him more; arguing that in spite of the knowledge he possesses Ã¢â¬Å"The JewÃ¢â¬ is nevertheless a disbeliever. The second reason due to which hatred skulks throughout the play is the un-acceptance of usury. During the Elizabethan era, Jews were not allowed to have any mercantile business, making usury, the practice of lending money on interest, the only source of profit to them. Antonio proves his negative attitude towards usury by lending money with no interest. Shylock, on the other hand, feels indignant of AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s actions: Ã¢â¬Å"He lends out money gratis and brings down The rate of usance here with us in Venice. Their different views on lending nurture the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ animosity and foreshadow the conflict that arises later in the play. Last but not least, hatred is presented in a play in both the ambiguous way and the personal one. It is quite clear that the great tensions between Ã¢â¬Å"The JewÃ¢â¬ and the Merchant are the focal point of the entire plot. AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s disrespectful actions towards Shylock are incited by his anti-Semitic ideology. Needless to say, th ose actions are the main reason for Shylocks hatred, so strong and unceasing, towards his offender. It almost seems that if Antonio was inflicting his enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s vengeance knowingly, continuing to practice his disrespectful behavior. Shylock justifies his thirst for revenge in act three: Ã¢â¬Å"The villainy you teach me I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instructionÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The JewÃ¢â¬ argues that if Christians (specifically Antonio) treat him as if he were Ã¢â¬Å"a dogÃ¢â¬ hence showing that they are hypocritical when contradicting the concept of mercy, which is so deeply enshrined in their religion. He blames the Christians for Ã¢â¬Å"teachingÃ¢â¬ him cruelty, and even promises to excel his masters. To sum up, the recurring hatred is a cycle that comes out of the cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s prejudices. It is one of the main themes in the play. Hatred and animosity, caused by the anti-Semitism, unacceptability of usury and disrespect, are the inciters of the conflict between Shylock and Antonio. Without them, the play would be dull and boring, because emotions are the ones to spice up the play, making the interaction between characters more fervid. How to cite Themes in the Merchant of Venice, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Hispanic Essay The Latin community in the area which I reside is weak. This is evident in the fact that less Hispanics are involved in community affairs than members of other ethnicitys. It would be rather interesting to be able to know what goes into government policy making. The enthusiasm that I would put forth on this topic would be exemplary. The experience that qualifies me to partake in this institute is my involvement in SALSA (Spanish And Latino Student Association), as well as the fact that I am an aware, young, Hispanic male who sees what really goes on in the Latin community. It would be quite educational to learn what occurs during the process of the making of government policies which greatly affect our community. Perhaps if more teenagers were given the opportunity to be educated on these matters the community could be bettered. This would improve the community by enriching the lives of youths and pointing them in a direction to work for the people, not against them. The work as well as effort that would be put forth by me would have to be exemplary. This is so because one of my goals in life is to better myself so that I may in turn better my community, especially the Hispanic community. This is an opportunity that I have been waiting for to arise. This is my chance to make a difference. The experiences that qualify me to take part in this institutes affairs are that I am an active member in the SALSA group, as well as the fact that I am a young, Hispanic male who sees how the Hispanic community works. My involvement in the SALSA club has given me a way to reach out to the Hispanic students in my school, in hopes that if I can inform these young individuals about how to better the community, as well as teach them a sense of self pride in themselves. Then hopefully when they go out into their towns they will also try to make a difference. The Hispanic community where I live is very UN-unified. This upsets me greatly because we as a people need to be involved and unified so that we may better ourselves as well as the future generations who will only learn from example of what we do right now. The Hispanic community is rather weak now. However this does not have to be so in the future. We, the Hispanics as a whole, must rise up and join our brethren to better ourselves.
Sunday, March 29, 2020
Abstract Over the recent times, Cloud computing has been a growing concept not just for IT (Information Technology) specialists, but also for scholars and researchers in other genres like business (Muglia, 2009, p. 2-4). Amrhein and Quint (2009) state that this is majorly based on the increased relevance of cloud computing in a wide range of organizations.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Cloud Computing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Kontio (2009), big companies like IBM, Microsoft and Amazon are amongst the pioneers that front-line the list of people and companies and individuals who embrace the importance of cloud computing in accentuating their endeavors. In spite of this pronounced success and ever growing dominance in the world of technologies; Otey (2010) points out that there has also been some slowlyÃ¢â¬âbut surelyÃ¢â¬âupcoming group of skeptics who have strongly voiced out t heir negative concerns in regard to cloud computing. The legibility of their concerns are still to be scholarly confirmed since cloud computing is a technological advancement that was established recently. Nonetheless, if an ultimate progress is to be enhanced for the many organizations and people who currently utilize this technology, as well as for the prospected users; it is paramount for viable statutes, fitting policies, suitable regulations and feasibility strategies to be relevantly put in place by the concerned parties (Boss et al., 2007, p. 1-3). In essence, it is based on the above issues that this research paper is going to expansively highlight the concept of cloud computing while detailing the progress that has been made by various organizations to this regard. A brief way of how this will be done is in the introductory summary below. Introduction Principally, this research paper specifically focuses on broadly highlighting the intricacies of cloud computing. Moreover, general reference to other vital concepts which are related to cloud computing is concurrently done. Having said that; it is inherent to state that this paper will be orderly presented as follows.Advertising Looking for research paper on it? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To start us off, the paper will give an inclusive and representative introduction into cloud computing. After that, we will delve into the characteristics of cloud computing which will then be closely followed by cloud computing services, how to manage a cloud, cloud organization standard, the benefits of cloud computing as well as it limitations/ challenges. Finally, a conclusion will be given starting by offering an insight into the future of cloud computing and how individualsÃ¢â¬âand organizations alikeÃ¢â¬âcan smoothly transition to it. The conclusion will then be finalized by giving a briefÃ¢â¬âbut conciseÃ¢â¬âevaluation of how we can choos e the right cloud computing service provider will also be done. As a crucial note; the authoritative opinions, verifiable facts, logical arguments, scholarly notions and intellectual suggestions in this paper are fundamentally backed up by reliable articles and books written by technology bigwigs. These scholarly resources are primarily used in order to facilitate and ensure conciseness, factualness and objectivity throughout the paper. Overview of Cloud Computing Several definitions have been advanced by variant scholars in giving the befitting meaning of cloud computer. As a matter of fact, a majority of these definitions have been focused on numerous issues since cloud computing is a broad technological area. Most of the definitions put forward by these scholars are rightÃ¢â¬âin their own respect. Documenting all of these definitions is impossible so only a few representative definitions are outlined below. Preliminarily; Otey (2010) states that cloud computing is a general te rm used to refer to an internet-based service which seeks to provide some form of essential computer-related service to an individual or organization.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Cloud Computing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To further his definition, Otey asserts that the specific types of services in cloud computing vary widely from one user to the other. This is the reason there are many cloud computing services which are currently in place with other expected in the future (Chaganti, 2008). Moreover, IBM (n.d.) defines cloud computing as an important set of computing solutions which allow its users to use technology in accessing or sharing information in virtual or physical in form. In doing so, the access or sharing of information is usually occurs via LAN Local area Network, WAN (Wide Area Network) or direct connection to a particular server (Anderson et al., 2010). The above definition is supported by other scholars who also believe that cloud computing is concerned with anything the delivery of hosted services using the internet. Lastly, Lovell (n.d., p. 4) articulates that cloud computing simply describes Ã¢â¬Å"highly scalable computing resourcesÃ¢â¬ which are basically provided as external services (through the internet) on a Ã¢â¬Å"pay-as-you-go basis.Ã¢â¬ According to Lovell, the term Ã¢â¬Å"cloudÃ¢â¬ is normally used metaphorically by technologists to refer to the internetÃ¢â¬âwhich, fundamentally, provides a viable forum for networking and exchange of vital computer resources (p. 4-5). The following diagram gives a brief representation of the anatomy of the cloud. A more detailed architectural diagram of the vital aspects of cloud computing can be found in Appendix I. Anatomy of the CloudAdvertising Looking for research paper on it? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Amrhein, D., Quint, S. (2009). Cloud computing for the enterprise: part 1: capturing the cloud. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/techjournal/0904_amrhein/0904_amrhein.html History of Cloud Computing According to Strickland (n.d.), the name cloud computing was historically inspired by the cloud-like symbol used to represent the concept in diagrams as well as flowcharts. Despite the fact that cloud computing has become extensively pronounced in the Information and technology world that we currently live in; Kontio (2009) reports that cloud computing is a recent technological inception. This is, in fact, the major reason a majority of the components and constituents of cloud computing heavily rely on current technologies and can barely function in their absence (IBM, n.d.). However, it is remarkable to state that cloud computing heavily borrows from traditional methods of computing and, more often than not, works interdependently with them. Probably, this mi ght be the reason some people tend to confuse it with related technologies like grid computing, utility computing and autonomic computing among many others (Miller, 2008; and Anderson et al., 2010). So what, really, are the differences between cloud computing and related technologies? According to Myerson (2009), grid computing differs from cloud computing, in that; it deals with loose virtually networked computers so as to perform large tasks. This is in opposition to cloud computing which operates with a compactly networked system and is limited when performing large tasks (Miller, 2008; Otey, 2010). As for Utility computing, the focus tends to be metered computing of resourcesÃ¢â¬âwhich is based on the concept and technology used in traditional public utilities like electricity (Brynjolfsson et al., 2010, p. 32-34; and Anderson et al., 2010). As was partly aforementioned, Cloud computing relies on modern technologies like the integration of hardware and software to create a vi able platform for it to perform its functions. In spite of this difference, utility computing is normally considered a key tenet in cloud computing. This is based on the fact that some of the concepts in utility computing are used by technologists in cloud computing (Otey, 2010). Other technologies that are reportedly interdependent with cloud computing include Client-server model, Peer-to-peer sharing and Service-oriented computing among many others (Anderson et al., 2010). As a key note; several examples exist to illustrate other similarities as well as differences between cloud computing and other technologies. That, however, is just a side-issue since many organizations today have found ways of incorporating cloud computing and other technologies. According to Anderson et al. (2010), focus should therefore be on finding ways of improving this interdependency rather than merely outlining the similarities and differences. Traditional Computing and Cloud Computing According to Armb rust et al. (2010, p. 54-57.) traditional business applications have always been quite complex, time-wasting, monetarily costly and somewhat inefficient in the technologically advanced world that we currently. Many other technological experts have been able to voice out similar sentiments against traditional computing with the additional complaints including being difficult to install, configure, assess, run, update and ensure their security. Durkee (2010, p. 62-66) states that it is based on the above challenges that cloud computing was established; not only to overcome the challenges, but also to provide better prospects for organizations that rely on computing for their survival. Even though cloud computing has been around for a few years, it hasÃ¢â¬âto a great extentÃ¢â¬âovercome the challenges of traditional computing and has even provided a better environment for IT users. In essence, this is the reason, like a bonfire, its heat is increasingly spreading to many organiza tions (Anderson et al., 2010). Of course there are a number of challenges for cloud computing as well as some positive aspects of traditional computing (as will be exemplified later); but as a widely-acknowledged fact, cloud computing is relatively advantageous for organizations when compared to the traditional methods of computing. These advantages are majorly based on its characteristics which are outlined hereafter in brief. Characteristic of cloud computing The process of cloud computing is normally done differently by different people. It is for this reason, according to Chaganti (2008), that cloud computing has many varying characteristics. Fundamentally, all the characteristics of cloud computing usually revolve around this concept of unspecified cloud-like shapes and either function to enhance this concept or supplement it. These characteristics, according to Otey (2010), Kontio (2009), Strickland (n.d.); Cloud Computing (n.d.) Anderson et al., (2010), Wittow and Buller (201 0, p. 2-6) include: Customers only pay for what they use and ignore the servers that are not benefit to them. Since some data centers run are huge and are shared by many people at the same time; the cost of infrastructure passed on to customers become lower. Customers are not obliged to buy (or even know) the ultimate capacity required during peak times. In other words, cloud computing automatically allows for scaling of available resources of the application being used. Cloud computing allows for automatic allocation (as well as de-allocation) of things like CPU, Storage and network bandwidth among many other important resources. Customers do not own physical infrastructure instead they get it through renting from third-party service providers. Servers are rarely left idle based on the concept of sharing computing power amongst various tenants. This also improves utilization rates. A good number of cloud computing services ascribe to the concept of utility computing. Many cloud co mputing services tend to function best with small and medium organizations since they rarely have the capacity to withstand the huge costs and expenditure of large organizations. Types of Cloud Computing Public Cloud In other instances, public cloud is normally referred to as external cloud. In essence, it refers to the conventionally accepted meaning of cloud computing, which is: an ever-changingÃ¢â¬âyet scalableÃ¢â¬âmethod whereby virtual resources are provided over the internet by a third-party provider. Eventually, this improves the distribution of resources and also helps in reducing the costs of getting certain important utilities. Popular public cloud providers include Amazon and EC2 (Anderson et al., 2010) Private Cloud A private cloud (also commonly referred to as Corporate Cloud or Internal Cloud) refers to a proprietary computing architecture where hosting services are done on networks privately. More often than not, the costs of private clouds tend to be relativel y expensive when compared to other like public cloud. It is for this reason that private clouding is mostly done by large companies or individuals who are financially well-off. Some critics have been able to come out strongly to oppose this type of cloud computing since some organizations surrender their networks to be managed by these private firms. In effect, this not only opens a door for many dangerous possibilities for the organization, but it also encourages laziness in terms of organizations or individuals not being able to manage their own cloudsÃ¢â¬âas is recommended by technology experts. Hybrid Cloud Just from the name, hybrid cloud essentially refers to the type of cloud computing where organizations or individuals incorporate the usage both public (external) and private (internal) cloud. According to most researchers; this type of cloud computing is predicted to become the most dominant way of computing based on its current skyrocketing usage. Of course there is the challenge of balancing the two types of cloud computing, but its many benefits make its usage worth every penny spent on it. Cloud Computing Services According to Maitland (2010), different organizations look for different things when selecting a cloud computing service that will help in furthering organizational goals as well as improving their networking avenues. This is the reason behind the availability of variant cloud computing services. Some of the major services here include: Software as a Service (SaaS) This refers to a software distribution model whereby software applications are orderly made available to customers via the internet. Some of its advantages include: easy accessibility form anywhere, instant scalability, good security during deployment over the internet. Its major criticism is that it can cause harm, just like proprietary software, since it limits user control as it does not allow users to modify the software. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) IaaS is a provision model whereby an organization outsources equipment that can be used to help support operations like networking, storage and good hardware functionality. Its advantages and disadvantages are more-or-less similar to SaaS with the main difference being that, focus here is on infrastructure while in SaaS, the focus in on software Maitland (2010). Platform as a Service (PaaS) PaaS involves the virtual-server renting of OS (Operating Systems), hardware, storage capacities and even network capacities over the internet. Chiefly, PaaS is an outgrowth of SaaS. Its advantages include: OS features can be changed thus gives control to users, easy for variant users of different regions to work collectively and services can be easily obtained from diverse sources. PaaS is normally criticized for the fact that sometimes; the flexibility of offerings is not able to meet the ever-changing needs of various users (Maitland 2010). Computer as a Service (CaaS) CaaS is not a common service, but its relevance has made it increasingly talked about over the recent times. It generally refers to a dynamic management service which enables users to make real-time changes. The advantages here include ease in control, heightened reliability and increased security for users. Its disadvantages are more-or-less similar to those of Paas and SaaS. Storage as a Service (DaaS) This is the least outspoken service amongst the ones already mentioned. DaaS performs its operations by abstracting data storage behind certain service interfaces and then delivering it when demanded. It has similar advantages to CaaS and PaaS with its major limitation being its inability to operate over some interfaces (Maitland, 2010; and Anderson et al., 2010). Managing the Cloud The following ways can be used to manage a cloud. Primarily, most clouds tend to be complex thus being very involving to users (Myerson, 2010). In order to avoid this, we should find ways of simplifying themÃ¢â¬âespecially on th e layers and interfaces (Jones 2008). Moreover, in order to improve networking; we can initiate the concept of cloud peering where networks are peered in the same way it is done over the internet. This will greatly improve the sharing of resources (Metzler, 2009; and Anderson et al., 2010). Again, system managers should establish ways in which data can be adequately monitored, changed and shared amongst users (Owens, 2010, p. 47-50). This will solve the common problems that are normally caused by poor data management. Finally, good and secure storage facilities (servers) should be put in place by organizations in order to limit security breaches (Cloud Computing in the Midmarket, 2010; Boss et al., p. 2-3). Cloud Organization Standard According to Otey (2010), there is no universally accepted way of standardizing cloud organization. The best way of having an effective and good standard therefore is by simply tailoring ways of having fitting services while observing cloud management strategies (IBM, n.d.; and Armbrust et al., 2010, p. 51-54). Benefits of Cloud Computing A good number of the benefits of cloud computing have been highlighted in the writings above. However, in summary, cloud computing, according to Anderson et al., (2010), Jones (2008), Lovell (n.d., p. 7-9), Kontio (2009), Cloud Computing (n.d.) offers the following advantages: It reduces costs on capital expenditure since customers can avoid spending large amounts of money by installing their infrastructure using the cloud model. It greatly cuts on administrative costs since management of the organization is streamlined and there is a balance between centralization and decentralization of duties. It encourages positive competition amongst individuals and organizations. Quality service is hugely guaranteed within a timely framework There is ease in the access of applications from anywhere at any given time. It provides for a disaster management system through backup and recovery tools. There is sufficient technical support for most users throughout the day. It is highly scalable and flexible thus offering many advantages to its customers. Users are entitled to getting reduction in costs based on the economies of scale. In other words, the more the users, the lesser the costs for each individual/organization. It provides for fitting management of data and resources through efficient data entry, manipulation and data storage facilities. Issues and Challenges/ Limitations of implementing cloud computing Just like the benefits, most of the challenges of cloud computing have been highlighted in the above writings. Nevertheless, these issues, according to Anderson et al., 2010), Otey (2010), Zhen (2008), Maitland (2010) and Durkee (2010, p. 63-67) can be briefly represented as follows: In spite of the huge reliability of the internet; there are numerous occasions that it becomes problematic thus limiting any form of communication, networking or even trade. This issue of occasi onal unavailability of the internet is also a major issue with websites and servers which tend to have occasional downtimes and most cloud computing applications cannot work well with low-speed connections. The storage and security capacity of vendors vary from one place to another. This makes it difficult for one to be assured of a good computing and also in choosing vendors. In close relations to this, storing confidential information or data of one company in servers owned by other companies can sometimes be risky if security breaches occur in the companies storing the information or data. The reportedly rising figures of cybercrimes pose a threat to internet users. Essentially, most cloud computing users and managers rely heavily on the internet. Issues such as cybercrimes are, therefore, of great concern to such users and managers. Shared infrastructuresÃ¢â¬âwhich are the basis of cloudÃ¢â¬âtend to slow down activities. When sharing resources, such as infrastructures, wit h other customers, the performance may be reduced, especially at peak times Despite being cost-effective in the long run, cloud computing is quite costly based on the need to buy new technologies and equipment. Also, since it is still a new technology, several changes and modifications are still being made on clouds computing applications and these changes come with extra-costs. Integrating cloud computingÃ¢â¬âespecially on organizations that still have the old computing systems is quite costly, hectic and difficult for many users. The issue of interoperabilityÃ¢â¬âwhere organizations can easily move their data from one cloud computing company to another, like in situations when they have found a better vendorÃ¢â¬âhas been reported to be challenging, in spite of the immense progress that have been made by some companies. This problem with interoperability is also witnessed in terms of companies that would love to use different clouds platforms to manage different applicatio ns Some complains have also been reported in regard to manageability of infrastructure. To this regard, it is said that despite the existence of great IaaS/PaaS in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology market, there are some raw platforms and infrastructure that have limited management capabilities thus not serving the users as intended. An example of such challenges is in Amazon EC2 who claim to be elastic and have auto-scaling capabilities when reports on the ground indicate the exact opposite Monitoring of performance and availability of things like transactions and disk IOÃ¢â¬â¢s. For some cloud computing companies, monitoring such issues are greatly challenging. Nonetheless, a good number of companies have been reported to improve in this area with provisions being made for the monitoring of virtual machines by the concerned management. The newness of cloud computing means that it is yet to be modified to a point whereby it is fully flexible as it should. For this reason, traditional app lications which have been in place for quite a while tend to have an upper hand in flexibility in some aspects when compared to the new (and still developing) cloud computing applications. Conclusion According to Otey (2010), determining the future of cloud computing cannot be done in a definite pattern based on the ever-changing arena of technology. Nonetheless, most of the studies done, in regard to cloud computing, tend to offer positive prospects. A good example here is a report by Bechtolsheim (2008, p. 4) which prospects the size of cloud computing to shoot up from $16 billion documented in 2008 to $42 billion in 2012. Many other researchers also foresee a better future for cloud computing. Anderson et al. (2010) also reports that an internet survey conducted recently indicates that by the year 2020, cloud computing will have greatly helped in improving the access of information via remote servers, instead of housed tools like personal computers. In addition, this report by A nderson et al. says that the access of software and other related applications will also be hugely improved by cloud computing. A good example of such cloud computing services is the proliferated use of social networks like Facebook and twitter in sharing information while also being able to effectively communicate and network with one another. In addition, there is an increased use of laptops, desktop computers and Smartphones to connect to remote servers and access or retrieve crucial information. However, if the above fore-sights are to be ultimately actualized, then there are some necessary changes that need to be put in placeÃ¢â¬âespecially in regard to the challenging issues. For example, Anderson et al. (2010) says that the reliance on remote serversÃ¢â¬âwhich is most likely to occur due to the expected dominance of cloud computingÃ¢â¬âcalls for expert and dependable personnel to gate-keep the information getting in and out of the remote servers. Also, the devices co ntrolling these clouds must be hugely effective to avoid problems in the access and sharing of data or information. To this regard, people have to well-trained and acclimatized to the intricacies of cloud computing while relevant devices are put in place. It is only by considering such measures that we can be ultimately be assured of a good future in cloud computing. Commendably, many IT experts are currently working around the clock to enhance this change. An example here is the shift from internal and external types of computing to the more effective hybrid cloud type (Lovell, n.d., p. 5). More effort is required from all of us if this change is to take place. Transitioning to cloud computing is already taking with several organizations already having integrated it into their computing systems (Kontio, 2009). As for the skeptics who did not know of which way to follow; this research provides you with the information to push you forward. Personally, I would encourage you to use thi s valuable method of computing. But then again, you are still entitled to make your own independent decision. Remarkably, it is crucial to note that the primary step in ensuring that you have a fitting cloud computing model is by choosing the right service provider. As was earlier mentioned, the technology market is flooded with rogue vendors and you should therefore do a thorough research and a lot of cross-checking before choosing a service provider. Only after that should you make your decisions. According to (Lovell, n.d., p. 5) examples of some well-acknowledge vendors include: Amazon, Salesforce.com, ThinkGrid, and Flexiscale. This list is, however, incomplete and more research to find other cloud computing vendors needs to be done since there are thousands of them in existence across the globe. A summary of the key aspects and examples of cloud computing is given below. Aspect of Cloud Computing Example Applications / SaaS Google Documents, Salesforce, LinkedIn, Facebook Platform Service Providers Google App Engine, Google Base, Ms Azure, SpringCM, Etelos, Box.net, Apprenda SaaSGrid, Force.com, Oracle SaaS Platform, Amazon SimpleDB, Amazon S3, TrackVia, Bungee Labs Connect. Infrastructure IBM Blue Cloud, Amazon EC2, Joyent, SunGrid, Integration Amazon SQS, Mule OnDemand, Microsoft Biztalk Services, OpSource Connect, Orchestration Intensil, ProcessMaker, Skemma, Appian Anywhere, OpenID, VMWare, Ping Identity, Elastra Cloud Server List of References Amrhein, D., Quint, S. (2009). Cloud computing for the enterprise: part 1: capturing the cloud. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/techjournal/0904_amrhein/0904_amrhein.html Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., et al. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50-58. Anderson, J. Q., Elon University., Rainie, L. (2010). The future of cloud computing. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1623/future-clo ud-computing-technology-experts Bechtolsheim, A. (2008). Cloud computing. Retrieved from http://netseminar.stanford.edu/seminars/Cloud.pdf Boss, G., Malladi, P., Quan D., Legregni, L., Hall, H. (2007). High performance on demand solutions (HiPODS). Retrieved from download.boulder.ibm.com/ibmdl/Ã¢â¬ ¦/Cloud_computing_wp_final_8Oct.pdf Brynjolfsson, E., Hofmann, P., Jordan, J. (2010). Cloud computing and electricity: beyond the utility model. Communications of the ACM, 53(5), 32-34. Chaganti, P. (2008). Cloud computing with Amazon web services, part 1: introduction. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/ar-cloudaws1/ Cloud Computing. (n.d.). In encyclopedia Wikinvest. Retrieved from http://www.wikinvest.com/concept/Cloud_Computing Durkee, D. (2010). Why Cloud Computing Will Never Be Free. Communications of the ACM, 53(5), 62-69. IBM. (n.d.). New to cloud computing? Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/cloud/newto.html Jones, T, M. (2008). Cloud comput ing with Linux. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-cloud-computing/ Kontio, M. (2009). Architectural manifesto: An introduction to the possibilities (and risks) of cloud computing. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/ar-archman10/ Lovell, R. (n.d.). Think grid: introduction to cloud computing. Retrieved from http://www.thinkgrid.com/docs/computing-whitepaper.pdf Maitland, J. (2010). Cloud computing concerns slowing widespread adoption. Retrieved from http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/generic/0,295582,sid201_gci1378175,00.html Metzler, J. (2009). A Guide for understanding cloud computing. Retrieved from www.bluecoat.com/doc/12437 Miller, R. (2008). WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in a name? Utility vs. cloud vs grid. Retrieved from http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2008/03/25/whats-in-a-name-utility-vs-cloud-vs-grid/ Muglia, B. (n.d.). An industry shift toward cloud computing. Retrieved from www.ict.com.qa/pdf/CloudComputing.pdf Mye rson, J. (2009). Cloud computing versus grid computing. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-cloudgrid/ Otey, M. (2010).The rise of cloud computing. Retrieved from http://www.windowsitpro.com/article/cloud-computing2/The-Rise-of-Cloud-Computing.aspx Owens, D. (2010). Securing elasticity in the cloud. Communications of the ACM, 53(6), 46-51. Ryan, W., Loeffler, C. (2010). Insights into cloud computing. Intellectual Property Technology Law Journal, 22(11), 22-28. Strickland, J. (n.d.). How cloud computing works. Retrieved from www.communication.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing.htm Waxe, C. (2008). The essential guide to cloud computing. Retrieved from http://www.webhostingunleashed.com/features/essential-guide-cloud-computing/ Wittow, M., Buller, D. (2010). Cloud computing: emerging legal issues for access to data, anywhere, anytime. Journal of Internet Law, 14(1), 1-10. Zhen, J. (2008). Five key challenges of enterprise cloud computing. Retrieved from h ttp://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/659288 Appendix Logical Architectural Diagrams of Cloud Computing Diagram 1: How the Cloud Works Webgranth. (n.d.). A complete reference to cloud computing. Retrieved from http://www.webgranth.com/a-complete-reference-to-cloud-computing Diagram 2: Relationship between the Elements of Cloud Computing Decker, K. (2010). What Joni Mitchell might say about cloud computing. Retrieved from http://decker.com/blog/2010/05/what-joni-mitchell-might-say-about-cloud-computing/ This research paper on Cloud Computing was written and submitted by user Bowen P. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Cloud Computing
Saturday, March 7, 2020
The Life Cycle of Butterflies and Moths All members of the order Lepidoptera, the butterflies and moths, progress through a four-stage life cycle, or complete metamorphosis. Each stage- egg, larva, pupa, and adult- serves a purpose in the insects development and life. Egg (Embryonic Stage) Once she has mated with a male of the same species, a female butterfly or moth will deposit her fertilized eggs, usually on plants that will serve as food for her offspring. This marks the beginning of the life cycle. Some, like the monarch butterfly, deposit eggs singly, scattering their progeny among the host plants. Others, such as the eastern tent caterpillar, lay their eggs in groups or clusters, so the offspring remain together for at least the early part of their lives. The length of time required for the egg to hatch is dependent on the species, as well as environmental factors. Some species lay winter-hardy eggs in the fall, which hatch the following spring or summer. Larva (Larval Stage) Once development within the egg is completed, a larva hatches from the egg. In butterflies and moths, we also call the larvae (plural of larva) by another name- caterpillars. In most cases, the first meal the caterpillar eats will be its own eggshell, from which it gains essential nutrients. From then on, the caterpillar feeds on its host plant. The newly hatched larva is said to be in its first instar. Once it grows too big for its cuticle, it must shed or molt. The caterpillar may take a break from eating as it prepares to molt. Once it does, it has reached its second instar. Often, it will consume its old cuticle, recycling the protein and other nutrients back into its body. Some caterpillars look just the same, only bigger, each time they reach a new instar. In other species, the change in appearance is dramatic, and the caterpillar may seem to be an entirely different kind. The larva continues this cycle- eat, poop, molt, eat, poop, molt- until the caterpillar reaches its final instar and prepares to pupate. Caterpillars readying for pupation often wander from their host plants, in search of a safe place for the next stage of their lives. Once a suitable site is found, the caterpillar forms a pupal skin, which is thick and strong, and sheds its final larval cuticle. Pupa (Pupal Stage) During the pupal stage, the most dramatic transformation occurs. Traditionally, this stage has been referred to as a resting stage, but the insect is far from at rest, in truth. The pupa does not feed during this time, nor can it move, though a gentle touch from a finger may yield an occasional wiggle from some species. Butterflies in this stage are chrysalides and moths in this stage are cocoons. Within the pupal case, most of the caterpillar body breaks down through a process called histolysis. Special groups of transformative cells, which remained hidden and inert during the larval stage, now become the directors of the bodys reconstruction. These cell groups, called histoblasts, initiate biochemical processes which transform the deconstructed caterpillar into a viable butterfly or moth. This process is called histogenesis, from the Latin words histo, meaning tissue, and genesis, meaning origin or beginning. Once the metamorphosis within the pupal case is completed, the butterfly or moth may remain at rest until the appropriate trigger signals the time to emerge. Changes in light or temperature, chemical signals, or even hormonal triggers may initiate the adults emergence from the chrysalis or cocoon. Adult (Imaginal Stage) The adult, also called the imago, emerges from its pupal cuticle with a swollen abdomen and shriveled wings. For the first few hours of its adult life, the butterfly or moth will pump hemolymph into the veins in its wings to expand them. The waste products of metamorphosis, a reddish liquid called meconium, will be discharged from the anus. Once its wings are fully dried and expanded, the adult butterfly or moth can fly in search of a mate. Mated females lay their fertilized eggs on appropriate host plants, beginning the life cycle anew.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
A Private High School in Ohio - Essay Example Nordonia High School is an independent English language, American-model secondary school that offers American high school curriculum in mathematics, social and natural sciences, English and Macedonian language and literature, foreign languages, fine and performing arts, and physical education. NordoniaÃ¢â¬â¢s campus includes over twenty classrooms and laboratories, a technology center, art, drama and music studios, an auditorium, a library, a full-service cafeteria, a bookstore and a fitness center. At presently Nordonia High School has one computer lab and library in which 20 computers are kept for students. Besides these, there is one computer for the professor and one printer for general purpose use in the computer lab is kept and three computers and one printer are there in the library for library staffs and librarian. All the classes have a computer for teaching purpose for professors and are connected to LAN. In all the classes there are also certain plug-ins so that any students can connect their laptops to LAN for using the school resources. There are also four administrative offices in Nordonia High School that contains four computers and a printer. Nordonia High School also has two old IBM servers for providing DHCP, saving files, security, internet access, and Backup purpose. The present network (LAN system) of the Nordonia High School is installed more than 6 years ago, and now the management wants it to modernize, therefore, hardware, as well as software technological enhancement, will be done for Nordonia High School. Also, one computer lab is not sufficient for school; therefore one additional computer lab is also needed for Nordonia High School.Ã